Learn Different Types of Steel and their Composition and Properties.

Sep 13, 2019 Posted by Admin

Steel is an alloy made from combination of iron and carbon. The World Steel Association reports that there are more than 3,500 grades of steel into existence, each of them containing unique chemical compositions, physical and environmental properties.

While buying steel, determining the type you want, it is important to consider that there are forms of steel classifies on the basis of their chemical composition and physical properties: alloy steels, carbon steels, tool steels and stainless steels. Let us dig into the types of steel a bit.

Alloy Steels
It is made up of elements like manganese, silicon, nickel, copper, aluminium, titanium and chromium in different proportions in order to manipulate its properties such as corrosion resistance, strength, ductility etc. It is used for pipeline, transformer, electric motor and auto-parts.

Carbon Steels
It contains trace amounts of alloying elements and account for 90% of total steel production. It can further be categorized as follows:

•    High Carbon Steels - Contains more than 0.6% carbon
•    Medium Carbon Steels - Contains 0.3-0.6% carbon
•    Low Carbon Steels – Contains up to 0.3%carbon

Tool Steels
The steel is given this name because it is mostly used in making of tools such as cutting, mold-making and stamping tools. It is used in tool making because of its capabilities like heat-resistance, scrape-resistance and it is very hard also. It is made up of cobalt, tungsten, molybdenum and vanadium. These items are used in different proportions to improve its heat-resistance and durability properties. Commonly it is made to use hammers.

Stainless Steels
t is corrosion-resistance and shiny and is used in many products like cooking utensils, home appliances and backsplashes. It is low on carbon content and contains alloy of chromium and can also include nickel. It is strong and is capable of withstanding high temperatures. It can be further divided into following types based on their crystalline structure:

•    Ferritic: It contains amounts of nickel, 12-17% chromium, less than 0.1% carbon, along with other alloying materials. This cannot be hardened by heat treatment but can be strengthened by cold working. 
•    Austentic: These are non-magnetic and non-heat treatable and contains 18% chromium, 8% nickel and less than 0.8% carbon. It accounts for largest portion of global stainless steel market and is often used for food processing equipment, piping and kitchen utensils.
•    Martensitic: It is made of 11-17% of chromium, less than 0.4% of nickel and up to 1.2% of carbon. It is mostly used in cutting tools, dental and surgical equipments and knives.

Steel has such properties that make its usability widespread which is evident from types of steel mentioned above. In today’s time steel is served in even energy transportation, construction appliances and packaging purposes. But AV Steel & Power supplies the Best Birla TMT Bars across the state of Rajasthan.


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